India and Pakistan have battled over territory since winning independence in 1947. Efforts by India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi to ease tensions over the past two years have hit a wall as terrorism backed by Pakistan continues in Kashmir. Meanwhile, Pakistan tightens relations with China. Efforts for peace came to a standstill after Pakistan hailed Burhan Wani – a rebel commander who fought for the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir to join Pakistan, killed by Indian forces – as a hero. So India is recalibrating policies, refusing to continue dialogue unless Pakistan ends its role in cross-border terrorism. In public addresses, Modi no longer holds back criticism, especially about crackdowns on activists in Balochistan, one of four provinces in Pakistan that borders the Arabian Sea. Modi’s criticism also stings China, which has made the Balochistan’s Gwadar port a key link in its own infrastructure plans.